Moreover, at COP25, countries were unable to agree on what the word “ambition” meant, with some – particularly developed countries – interpreting “ambitions” more closely to increase emissions reduction efforts after 2020 and others – particularly India and other developing countries – for a broader interpretation of “ambitions” , which would include increased promised climate finance and efforts to strengthen the adjustment and capacity of poor countries. They pointed out that many industrialized countries had failed to meet their commitments to MFNs by 2020, jeopardizing the integrity of the Paris Agreement and any opportunity to thwart global warming. The lack of U.S. support has made it more difficult and slowed down commitments made by others. After the resounding success of the Montreal Protocol, international attention shifted to the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases are gases in a planet`s atmosphere that absorb and emit infrared rays in all directions. When these radiations are directed downwards towards the planet`s surface, they warm the surface, leading to what is called the greenhouse effect. The main greenhouse gases in the Earth`s atmosphere are water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ozone (O3). As human activity increased the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect accelerated and caused global warming. While the greenhouse effect was first suspected in the late 19th century, international concern increased in the 1980s, with an increase in signs of rising global temperatures, as well as supporting data showing an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In 1988, countries met within the framework of the United Nations to form an intergovernmental panel called the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC is a scientific organization responsible for synthesising current knowledge on the causes and consequences of climate change. It published its first report in 1990, with reports published every 5 to 7 years.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an international scientific group of nearly 200 member countries, established in 1988 under the aegis of the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). International Agreement on the Use of Tropical Hardwoods The 1990 IPCC report formed the basis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international climate treaty adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. The UNFCCC came into force in 1994 (after the signing and ratification of 154 countries).